Aims and Scope

The youngest journal of the ESR Journals Family is a fully open access journal, owned by the European Society of Radiology and edited by Editor in Chief, Prof. Francesco Sardanelli (Milan, Italy).

European Radiology Experimental focuses on research from new techniques and experimental settings, that might soon influence clinical radiology. Its goal is to provide a forum open not only to radiologists, nuclear physicians, or radiation therapists but also to other professionals such as physicists, biologists, chemists, bioengineers, and biomathematicians, and many more.

All articles are immediately available upon publication which fosters a wider collaboration and increased citations.


Editor in Chief

Francesco Sardanelli, MD, Lega Italiana per la Lotta contro i Tumori, Milan, Italy. Email: editor@er-x.org

Francesco Sardanelli is Scientific Coordinator of the Lega Italiana per la Lotta contro i Tumori (LILT) Milano Monza Brianza, Piazzale Gorini 22, 20133 Milan, Italy.

He is a long-time and active member of the European Society of Radiology and served as president of the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) from 2012 to 2015. Additionally, he is the Director of the European Network for the Assessment of Imaging in Medicine (EuroAIM) of the European Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Research (EIBIR). He has co-authored more than 500 peer-reviewed articles, 8 books and 57 book chapters on a large spectrum of topics including breast, cardiovascular, neuro, body, musculoskeletal radiology as well as methodological issues. He has been director of the department of Radiology at the Research Hospital Policlinico San Donato from 2001 to 2024, professor of Radiology at the University of Milan from 2006 to 2023, President of the Ethics Committee of the Ospedale San Raffaele/Lombardia 1 from 2022 to 2024.

Honors: Gold Medal 2021 (European Society of Radiology) and Gold Medal 2023 (European Society of Breast Imaging).

Deputy Editor

Akos Varga-Szemes, MD, PhD, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, United States

Advisory Editorial Board


European Society of Cardiovascular Radiology
Luigi Natale, MD, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy

European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology
Marc Zins, MD, Hôpital Saint-Joseph, Paris, France

European Society for Hybrid, Molecular and Translational Imaging
Katrine Riklund, MD, PhD, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

European Society of Head and Neck Radiology
Steve Connor, MD, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom

European Society of Neuroradiology
Luigi Manfré, MD, Institute of Oncology in Mediterranean I.O.M., Catania, Italy

European Society of Oncologic Imaging
Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, MD, PhD, German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany

European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology
Alberto Bazzocchi, PhD, MD, The “Rizzoli” Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy

European Society of Thoracic Imaging
Anna Rita Larici, MD, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy

European Society of Urogenital Radiology
Marie-France Bellin, MD, Hôpital Bicêtre, Villejuif, France

European Society of Breast Imaging
Ritse Mann, MD, PhD, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

European Society of Medical Imaging Informatics
Erik Ranschaert, MD, PhD, St. Nikolaus Hospital, Eupen, Belgium


Scientific Editorial Board


Section Editor: Anna Colarieti, MD, PhD, University of Milan, Unit of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy

Masamitsu Hatakenaka, MD, PhD, Sapporo Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology Sapporo, Japan

Francesco Rizzetto, MD, University of Milan, Department of Radiology, Milan, Italy

Stephan Skornitzke, PhD, Philips Market Dach GmbH, Clinical Science PD WE, and University Hospital Cologne, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cologne, Germany

Jaap Stoker MD, PhD, Amsterdam UMC, Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Nikita Sushentsev, MD, PhD (Cantab), University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Aïna Venkatasamy, MD, PhD, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire, Centre d’imagerie médicale, Strasbourg, France


Artificial intelligence, augmented reality, computer science, and radiomics

Section Editor: Renato Cuocolo, MD, PhD, University of Salerno, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Naples, Italy

Pascal A.T. Baltzer, MD, Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Treatment, Vienna, Austria

Damiano Caruso, MD, PhD, Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Medical Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Rome, Italy

Carlo Cavedon, MD, University Hospital of Verona, Medical Physics Unit, Verona, Italy

Marina Codari, MSE, PHD, Tempus AI, San Francisco, United States

Christina Malamateniou, PhD, MA, BSc, University of London Radiography, London, United Kingdom

Emanuele Neri, MD, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy

Evis Sala, MD, PhD, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Radiotherapy and Haematology, Rome, Italy

Dong-myung Shin, PHD, RadiSen Co. Ltd., AI Engineering Division, Seoul, South Korea

Arnaldo Stanzione, MD, PhD, University of Naples Federico II, Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples, Italy

Marly van Assen, PhD, Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Atlanta, United States

Peter M.A. van Ooijen, MSc, PHD, University Medical Center Groningen, Radiotherapy, Groningen, The Netherlands



Section Editor: Paola Clauser, MD, PhD, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Alexandra Athanasiou, MD, MSc, Mitera Hospital, Breast Imaging Department, Athens, Greece

Eduardo F.C. Fleury, MD, PhD, Facukdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo, Department of Radiology, São Paulo, Brazil

Fleur Kilburn-Toppin, MD, MA MB bchir FRCR, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Elisabeth A. Morris, MD, PhD, UC Davies Health, Sacramento, United States

Marco Moschetta, MD, University of Bari, DIM – Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Bari, Italy

Federica Pediconi, MD, Sapienza University of Rome, Dept. of Radiological, Oncological and pathological Sciences, Rome, Italy

Filippo Pesapane, MD, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Breast Imaging Unit, Milan, Italy

Rubina Manuela Trimboli, MD, PhD, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Breast imaging and Screening Unit, Milan, Italy



Section Editor: Caterina B. Monti, MD, PhD, University of Milan, Postgraduate School in Radiodiagnostics, Milan, Italy

Maximilian Bauer, MD, Harvard University, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, United States

Domenico De Santis, MD, Sapienza – University of Rome, Sant’Andrea University Hospital, Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Rome, Italy

Julian Alexander Luetkens, MD, PhD, University Hospital Bonn, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bonn, Germany

Domenico Mastrodicasa, MD, University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, United States

Giuseppe Muscogiuri, MD, PhD, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, ItalyASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Department of Radiology, Bergamo, Italy

Amir Pourmorteza, PhD, Emory University – Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences – Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, United States

Francesco Secchi, MD, PhD, University of Milan/IRCCS Multimedica, Unit of Radiology, Milan, Italy


Cell/tissue, animal, digital models of human physiopatholgy

Section Editor: Fabian M.A. Kießling, MD, RWTH, Aachen University, Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, Aachen, Germany

Irmak Durur-Subasi, MD, PhD, EBBI, Istanbul Medipol University, International Faculty of Medicine, Radiology, Istanbul, Türkiye

Egidio Iorio, MSc, PhD, Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, Core Facilities, Rome, Italy

Gabriele A. Krombach, MD, University Hospital Giessen, Department of Radiology and Paediatric Radiology, Giessen, Germany

Anna Palmisano, MD, PhD, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy



Section Editor: Martin Beeres, MD, PhD, Marburg University Hospital, Neuroradiology, Marburg, Germany

Lorenzo Cereser, MD, University of Udine, Institute of Radiology, Department of Medicine, Udine, Italy

Massimo Cressoni, MD, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Department of Radiology, San Donato, Italy

Anna Rita Larici, MD, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart –Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Diagnostic Imaging, Oncological Radiotherapy and Haematology – Advanced Radiology Center (ARC), Rome, Italy

Mariaelena Occhipinti, MD, PhD, Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, S. Cataldo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Pisa, Italy


Computed Tomography

Section Editor: Tilman Emrich, MD, EBCR, FSCMR, University Medical Center Mainz, Department of Radiology, Mainz, Germany

Tommaso D’Angelo, MD, PhD, University of Messina, Department BIOMORF, Messina, Italy

Dirk Graafen, MD, PhD, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz, Germany

Peter B. Noël, PhD, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, United States

Salim A. Si-mohamed, MD, PhD, University of Lyon, Imaging Department, Lyon, France


Forensic and paleoradiology

Section Editor: Cristina Cattaneo, MD, PhD, University of Milan, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Milan, Italy

Patrick E. Eppenberger, MD, PhD, EMBA, University of Zurich, Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, Zurich, Switzerland

Dominic Gascho, MAS ETH MP, University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich, Switzerland


Information technology, social media and environmental sustainability

Section Editor: Moreno Zanardo, MSc, PhD, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Milan, Italy

Gennaro D’Anna, MD, ASST Ovest Milanese, Neuroimaging Unit, Legnano, Italy

Matthias Dietzel, MD, MHBA, University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen, Germany

Simone Zanoni, PhD, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Dept. of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering and Mathematics, Brescia, Italy


Section Editor: Roberto L. Cazzato, MD, PhD, Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology, Strasbourg, France

Edit Dósa, MD, PhD, Semmelweis University, Interventional Radiology, Budapest, Hungary

Giovanni Mauri, MD, European Insititute of Oncology, IRCCS, Interventional Radiology, Milan, Italy

Lorenzo Monfardini, MD, San Giuseppe Hospital: Ospedale San Giuseppe, Department of Radiology, Milan, Italy

Stavros C. Spiliopoulos, MD, PhD, EBIR-ES, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Attikon”, University General Hospital, Athens, Greece


Magnetic resonance

Section Editor: Ferdia A. Gallagher, PhD FRCR FRCP, University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Rossella Canese, MSc, PhD, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Core Facilities, Rome, Italy

Fabao Gao, PhD, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Sichuan, China

Daiki Tamada, PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, United States


Methodology, statistics, and evidence syntheses

Section Editor: Federico Ambrogi, MSc, PhD, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

Andrea Cozzi, MD, PhD, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale (EOC), Istituto di Imaging della Svizzera Italiana (IIMSI), Lugano, Switzerland

Aydin Demircioğlu, MD, PhD, University Hospital Essen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen, Germany

Giovanni Di Leo, MSc, Research Hospital (IRCCS) Policlinico San Donato, Milan, Italy


Molecular, nuclear and hybrid imaging

Section Editor: Thomas H. Helbich, MD, MSc, MBA, Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna, Austria

Paola Anna Erba, MD, PhD, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, and ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy

Andor W. J. M. Glaudemans, MD, PhD, University Medical Center Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen, The Netherlands

Konstantin Nikolaou, MD, University Hospital Tübingen, Department of Radiology, Tübingen, Germany

Simone Schiaffino, PD Dr Med, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Department of Radiology, Lugano, Switzerland

Riemer H.J.A. Slart, MD, PhD, Groningen University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, Groningen, The Netherlands



Section Editor: Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, MD, Te Toka Tumai Auckland, Auckland District Health Board, Department of Radiology, and University of Auckland – Waipapa Taumata Rau, Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Auckland, New Zealand; and IMSKE, Department of Radiology, Valencia, Spain

Hasan Banitalebi, MD, Akershus University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Lørenskog, Norway

Christian Booz, MD, PhD, University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt, Germany

Fabio Galbusera, MSE, Schulthess Klinik, Zürich, Switzerland

Salvatore Gitto, MD, PhD, University of Milan, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Milan, Italy

Giuseppe Guglielmi, MD, University of Foggia, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Foggia, Italy

Luca M. Sconfienza, MD, PhD, University of Milan, IRCCS Ospedale Galeazzi, Milan, Italy

Francesca Serpi, MD, University of Milan, IRCCS Ospedale Galeazzi, Milan, Italy

Žiga Snoj, MD, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Radiology Dept., Ljubljana, Slovenia

Fabio M. Ulivieri, MD, Casa di Cura la Madonnina, Bone Metabolic Unit, Milan, Italy


Neuro and head/neck

Section Editor: Luca Roccatagliata, MD, PhD, University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Genova, Italy

Antonella Castellano, MD, PhD, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and San Raffaele Hospital Neuroradiology, Milan, Italy

Damien P. Galanaud, MD, PhD, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital & Sorbonne Université, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris, France

Pasquina Marzola, MSc, PhD, University of Verona, Engineering for Innovation Medicine, Verona, Italy

Giuseppe Pontillo, MD, PhD, Amsterdam UMC, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Claudia Testa, MSc, PhD, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Lorenzo Ugga, MD, PhD, University of Naples Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples, Italy

Behroze A. Vachha, MD, PhD, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, United States

Paolo Vitali, MD, PhD, University of Milan, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Milan, Italy


Phantom studies, radioprotection, and physics in radiology

Section Editor: Gisella Gennaro, MSc, IRCCS Veneto Institute of Oncology (IOV), Imaging and Radiation Therapy/Breast Radiology, Padua, Italy

Patrizia Cornacchione, MSc, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A.Gemelli IRCCS, Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Rome, Italy

Nicolas Foray, MD, PhD, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, Lyon, France

Daniela Origgi, MSc, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy

Angelo Taibi, MSc, PhD, University of Ferrara, Dept. of Physics and Earth Sciences, Ferrara, Italy



Section Editor: Daniela Pfeiffer, MD, Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich, Germany

Gianmarco Della Pepa, MD, Fondazione IRRCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Department of Breast Imaging, Milan, Italy

Shane J. Foley, PhD, PgDip (Medical Science), PgDip (Teaching), BSc, University College Dublin, Department of Radiography & Diagnostic Imaging, Dublin, Ireland



Section Editor: Maija Radzina, MD, PhD, Riga Stradins University / University of Latvia, Department of Radiology, Riga, Latvia

Marco Di Serafino, MD, Antonio Cardarelli Hospital, General and Emergency Radiology, Naples, Italy


Urogenital and fetal

Section Editor: Stefania MR Rizzo, MD, PhD, University of Southern Switzerland (USI), Clinic of Radiology, Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Lugano, Switzerland

Elena Bertelli, MD, PhD, Careggi University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Florence, Italy

Valentina Chiappa, MD, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Gynecologic Oncology, Milan, Italy

Rossano Girometti, MD, University of Udine, Institute of Radiology, Department of Medicine, Udine, Italy

András Jakab, MD, PhD, University Children’s Hospital Zurich / University of Zurich, Center for MR-Research, Zurich, Switzerland

Gigin Lin, MD, PhD, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taiwan, Chinese Taipei

Lucia Manganaro, MD, Sapienza University of Rome, Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Rome, Italy